Human Enhancement

Human enhancement expresses the often difficult determination of utilizing medical and technological advances beyond restorative or otherwise therapeutic purposes. Such enhancements may include such the elective alteration of the human body through augmentation (such as cosmetic surgery for nonmedical purposes) or genetic interventions (such as germline gene therapies and designer babies) as well as attempts to improve or alter functionality such as cognitive or performance enhancement. Such enhancement efforts as are promoted by proponents of transhumanism or posthumanism further pursue the development and use of a broad range of emerging technologies (including nanotechnologies, biotechnologies, information technologies, and developments in the cognitive sciences) for the expressed purpose of human enhancement to intentionally evolve or move beyond the physical constraints and life span of the human species.