Human Enhancement Bibliography

Special Resource Types: 


The following sources do not necessarily reflect the Center's positions or values. These sources, however, are excellent resources for familiarizing oneself with all sides of the relevant issues.

Eugenics | Human Enhancement (General) | Immortality Research | Posthumanism | Transhumanism



  • Alexander, Denis R. and Ronald L. Numbers, eds. Biology and Ideology from Descartes to Dawkins. University of Chicago Press, 2010.
  • Bashford, Alison, and Philippa Levine. The Oxford Handbook of the History of Eugenics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Black, Edwin. War against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create a Master Race. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 2003.
  • Chesterton, G. K. Eugenics and Other Evils. London: Catholic Way Publishing, 2012.
  • Conlon, Anne, ed. The Reach of Roe: Eugenics, Euthanasia, and Other Assaults on the Dignity of Human Life (1975-2012). New York: Human Life Foundation, 2013.
  • Farmer, Ann. By Their Fruits: Eugenics, Population Control, and the Abortion Campaign. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2008.
  • Kevles, Daniel. In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.
  • Kuhl, Stefan. For the Betterment of the Race: The Rise and Fall of the International Movement for Eugenics and Racial Hygiene. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
  • Leon, Sharon M. An Image of God: The Catholic Struggle with Eugenics. University of Chicago Press, 2013.
  • Lombardo, Paul. A Century of Eugenics in America from the Indiana Experiment to the Human Genome Era. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2011.
  • Lombardo, Paul. Three Generations, No Imbeciles: Eugenics, the Supreme Court, and Buck v. Bell. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010.
  • MacKellar, Calum, and Christopher Bechtel, eds. The Ethics of the New Eugenics. New York: Berghahn Books, 2014.
  • Rosen, Christine. Preaching Eugenics: Religious Leaders and the American Eugenics Movement. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Rothschild, Joan. The Dream of the Perfect Child. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005.
  • Tankard Reist, Melinda. Defiant Birth: Women Who Resist Medical Eugenics. North Melbourne, Australia: Spinifex Press, 2006.
  • Weikart, Richard. From Darwin to Hitler: Evolutionary Ethics, Eugenics, and Racism in Germany. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

Out of Print

  • Glad, John. Future Human Evolution: Eugenics in the Twenty-first Century. Schuylkill Haven, PA: Hermitage, 2006.
  • McGee, Glenn. Perfect Baby: Parenthood in the New World of Cloning and Genetics. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000.


Human Enhancement (General)

  • Agar, Nicholas. Humanity's End: Why We Should Reject Radical Enhancement. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2010.
  • Agar, Nicholas. Liberal Eugenics: In Defence of Human Enhancement. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004.
  • Agar, Nicholas. Truly Human Enhancement: A Philosophical Defense of Limits. MIT Press, 2013.
  • Baillie, Harold W., and Timothy K. Casey, eds. Is Human Nature Obsolete? Genetics, Bioengineering, and the Future of the Human Condition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.
  • Bateman, Simone, Jean Gayon, Sylvie Allouche, Jerome Goffette, and Michela Marzano, eds. Inquiring into Human Enhancement: Interdisciplinary and International Perspectives. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
  • Benford, Gregory, and Elizabeth Malartre.  Beyond Human: Living with Robots and Cyborgs. New York: Tom Doherty Associates, 2007.
  • Buchanan, Allen E. Better Than Human: The Promise and Perils of Enhancing Ourselves. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • Buchanan, Allen E. Beyond Humanity? The Ethics of Biomedical Enhancement. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • Cabrera, Laura Y. Rethinking Human Enhancement: Social Enhancement and Emergent Technologies. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
  • Eilers, Miriam, Katrin Gruber, and Christoph Rehmann-Sutter, eds. The Human Enhancement Debate and Disability: New Bodies for a Better Life. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
  • Elliot, Carl. Better Than Well: American Medicine Meets the American Dream.  New York: Norton, 2004.
  • Fröding, Barbro. Virtue Ethics and Human Enhancement. New York: Springer, 2013.
  • Garreau, Joel. Radical Evolution: The Promise and Peril of Enhancing our Minds, Our Bodies—and What It Means to Be Human. New York: Broadway, 2006.
  • Harris, John. Enhancing Evolution: The Ethical Case for Making Better People. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007.
  • Hauskeller, M. Better Humans? Understanding the Enhancement Project. Durham, UK: Acumen Pub. Ltd., 2013.
  • Moore, Peter. Enhancing Me: The Hope and the Hype of Human Enhancement. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2008.
  • Naam, Ramez. More than Human: Embracing the Promise of Biological Enhancement. New York: Broadway Books, 2005.
  • Parens, Erik, ed. Enhancing Human Traits. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1998.
  • Parens, Erik, ed. Surgically Shaping Children: Technology, Ethics, and the Pursuit of Normality. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.
  • Pence, Gregory E. How to Build a Better Human: An Ethical Blueprint. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2012.
  • President's Council on Bioethics. Beyond Therapy: Biotechnology and the Pursuit of Happiness., 2003.
  • Savulescu, Julian, R. H. J. ter Meulen, and Guy Kahane. Enhancing Human Capacities. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
  • Savulescu, Julian, and Nick Bostrom, eds. Human Enhancement. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • Shuldrick, Margrit, and Roxanne Mykitiuk, eds. Ethics of the Body: Postconventional Challenges. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.
  • Tolleneer, Jan, Sigrid Sterckx, and Pieter Bonte, eds. Athletic Enhancement, Human Nature and Ethics: Threats and Opportunities of Doping Technologies. New York: Springer, 2012.

Out of Print

  • Andrews, Lori B. Future Perfect: Confronting Decisions about Genetics. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
  • Cole-Turner, Ronald, ed. Beyond Cloning: Religion and the Remaking of Humanity. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 2001.
  • Magnus, David, Arthur Caplan, and Glenn McGee, eds. Who Owns Life? Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2002.
  • Mehlman, Maxwell J. The Price of Perfection: Individualism and Society in the Era of Biomedical Enhancement. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009. (e-book edition available)
  • Rothman, Sheila, and David Rothman. The Pursuit of Perfection: The Promise and Perils of Medical Enhancement. New York: Pantheon Books, 2003.


Immortality Research

  • Deech, Ruth and Anna Smajdor. From IVF to Immortality: Controversy in the Era of Reproductive Technology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
  • deGrey, Aubrey, and Michael Rae. Ending Aging: The Rejuvenation that Could Reverse Human Aging in Our Lifetime. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2007.
  • Hulsroj, Peter. What if We Don’t Die? The Morality of Immortality. New York: Springer, 2015.
  • Lo, Vivienne, ed. Perfect Bodies: Sports, Medicine, and Immortality Ancient and Modern. Lond: British Museum Press, 2012.
  • Mercer, Calvin and Derek F. Maher, eds. Religion and the Implications of Radical Life Extension. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
  • Mitchell, C. Ben, Robert D. Orr, and Susan A. Salladay, eds. Aging, Death, and the Quest for Immortality. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2004.
  • Olshansky, Stuart Jay, and Bruce A. Carnes. The Quest for Immortality: Science at the Frontiers of Aging. New York: Norton, 2001.
  • Shostak, Stanley. Becoming Immortal: Combining Cloning and Stem Cell Therapy. New York: SUNY Press, 2002.

Out of Print

  • Bova, Ben. Immortality—How Science is Extending Your Life Span—and Changing the World. New York: Harper Perennial, 2000. (e-book edition available)
  • Hall, Stephen S. Merchants of Immortality: Chasing the Dream of Human Life Extension. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2003. (e-book edition available)



  • Cecchetto, David. Humanesis: Sound and Technological Posthumanism. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2013.
  • Fukuyama, Francis.  Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York: Picador, 2002.
  • Gray, Chris Hables.  Cyborg Citizen: Politics in the Posthuman Age. New York: Routledge, 2001.
  • Gordijn, Bert, and Ruth F. Chadwick. Medical Enhancement and Posthumanity. Dordrecht: Springer, 2009.
  • Hauskeller, Michael, Thomas D. Philbeck, and Curtis D. Carbonell, eds. The Palgrave Handbook of Posthumanism in Film and Television. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
  • Hayles, N. Katherine. How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
  • Herbrechter, Stefan. Posthumanism: A Critical Analysis. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2013.
  • Hyde, Michael J. Perfection: Coming to Terms with Being Human. Notre Dame, IN: The University of Notre Dame Press, 2010.
  • Kass, Leon. Life, Liberty, and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics. New York: Encounter Books, 2004.
  • King-Tak, Ip. Bioethics of Regenerative Medicine. New York: Springer, 2009.
  • Koosed, Jennifer L., ed. The Bible and Posthumanism. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2014.
  • Lake, Christina Bieber. Prophets of the Posthuman: American Fiction, Biotechnology, and the Ethics of Personhood. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2013.
  • Lewis, C.S. The Abolition of Man. New York: HarperCollins, 2001.
  • Merrell, Floyd.  Sensing Corporeally: Toward a Posthuman Understanding. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003.
  • Miccoli, Anthony. Posthuman Suffering and the Technological Embrace. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2010.
  • Nayar, Pramod K. Posthumanism. Malden, MA: Polity, 2014.
  • Pepperell, Robert. The Posthuman Condition: Consciousness beyond the Brain.  Portland, OR: Intellect, 2009.
  • Scott, Peter M. Anti-Human Theology: Nature, Technology and the Post-Natural. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010.
  • Seidel, Asher. Immortal Passage: Philosophical Speculations on Posthuman Evolution. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2010.
  • Seidel, Asher. Inhuman Thoughts: Philosophical Explorations of Posthumanity. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008.
  • Sharon, Tamar. Human Nature in an Age of Biotechnology: The Case for Mediated Posthumanism. New York: Springer, 2013.
  • Stefan, Herbrechter. Posthumanism: A Critical Analysis. New York: Continuum, 2013.
  • Thweatt-Bates, Jeanine. Cyborg Selves: A Theological Anthropology of the Posthuman. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2012.
  • Waters, Brent. Christian Moral Theology in the Emerging Technoculture: From Posthuman Back to Human. Ashgate Science and Religion Series. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014.
  • Waters, Brent. From Human to Posthuman: Christian Theology and Technology in a Postmodern World. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2006.
  • White, Ryan. The Hidden God: Pragmatism and Posthumanism in American Thought. Columbia University Press, 2015.
  • Wolfe, Cary. Animal Rites: American Culture, the Discourse of Species, and Posthumanist Theory. University of Chicago Press, 2003.
  • Wolfe, Cary. What Is Posthumanism? Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010.

Out of Print

  • Halberstam, Judith and Ira Livingston, eds. Posthuman Bodies. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1995.



  • Allenby, Braden R. and Daniel Sarewitz. The Techno-Human Condition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2011.
  • Bostrom, Nick. Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies. Oxford University Press, 2014.
  • Cole-Turner, Ronald, ed. Transhumanism and Transcendence: Christian Hope in an Age of Technological Enhancement. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2011.
  • Deane-Drummond, Celia and Peter Manley Scott, eds. Future Perfect? God, Medicine, and Human Identity. New York: T & T Clark, 2006.
  • Fuller, Steve. Humanity 2.0: What It Means to Be Human Past, Present, and Future. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
  • Geraci, Robert. Apocalyptic AI: Visions of Heaven in Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, and Virtual Reality. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Hansell, Gregory R. and William Grassie, eds. H +/-: Transhumanism and its Critics. San Francisco, CA: Metanexus Institute, 2011.
  • Haughey, John C. and Ilia Delio. Humanity on the Threshold: Religious Perspectives on Transhumanism. Washington, DC: Council for Research in Values & Philosophy, 2014.
  • Kurzweil, Ray. How to Create a Mind: The Secret of Human Thought Revealed. New York: Penguin, 2013.
  • Kurzweil, Ray. The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology. New York: Penguin Group, 2005.
  • Lilley, Stephen. Transhumanism and Society: The Social Debate over Human Enhancement. New York: Springer, 2012.
  • Mehlman, Maxwell J. Transhumanist Dreams and Dystopian Nightmares: The Promise and Peril of Genetic Engineering. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012.
  • Mercer, Calvin and Tracy J. Trothen, eds. Religion and Transhumanism: The Unknown Future of Human Enhancement. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2014.
  • Molloy, Claire and Steven Shakespeare. Beyond Human: From Animality to Transhumanism. New York: Continuum, 2012.
  • More, Max and Natasha Vita-More, eds. The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013.
  • Ramachandra, Vinoth. Subverting Global Myths: Theology and the Public Issues Shaping Our World. Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2008.

Out of Print

  • Alexander, Brian. Rapture: How Biotech Became the New Religion. New York: Basic Books, 2003.
  • Dewdney, Christopher. Last Flesh: Life in the Transhuman Era. New York: HarperCollins, 1998.
  • Paul, Gregory S., and Earl D. Cox. Beyond Humanity: Cyberevolution and Future Minds. Rockland, MA: Charles River Media, 1996.


For additional related material see the Emerging Technology and Genetic Ethics Bibliographies.



Updated October 2016