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How Viruses Cooperate to Defeat CRISPR

July 19, 2018

(The Atlantic) – CRISPR doesn’t always work. In 2010, the microbiologist Joseph Bondy-Denomy pitted phages against CRISPR-wielding bacteria. Some of the viruses were destroyed, but others unexpectedly survived and infected the bacteria. Bondy-Denomy showed that those phages succeeded by relying on proteins that could shut down CRISPR inside the bacteria, by sticking to the scissor-like enzymes and blunting them. So, bacteria and phages are locked in an arms race. The bacteria use CRISPR to defang the phages, and the phages use anti-CRISPRs to subvert the bacterial defenses. The only problem is that the anti-CRISPRs shouldn’t work.

A New Edition of The New England Journal of Medicine Is Now Available

July 19, 2018

The New England Journal of Medicine (vol. 378, no. 24, 2018) is available online by subscription only.

Articles include:

  • “Trolleyology and the Dengue Vaccine Dilemma” by L. Rosenbaum
  • “Recognizing Blind Spots — A Remedy for Gender Bias in Medicine?” by L.G. Rabinowitz
  • “Lost Taussigs — The Consequences of Gender Discrimination in Medicine” by L.S. Rotenstein and A.B. Jena
  • “Substitute Decision Making in End-of-Life Care” by L. Caulley, M.R. Gillick, and L.S. Lehmann

 

A New Edition of The American Journal of Bioethics Is Now Available

July 19, 2018

The American Journal of Bioethics (vol. 18, no. 6, 2018) is available online by subscription only.

Articles include:

  • “Performance-Enhancing Drugs, Sport, and the Ideal of Natural Athletic Performance” by Sigmund Loland
  • “Were the “Pioneer” Clinical Ethics Consultants “Outsiders”? For Them, Was “Critical Distance” That Critical?” by Bruce D. White, Wayne N. Shelton, and Cassandra J. Rivais

 

A New Edition of Bioethics Is Now Available

July 19, 2018

Bioethics (vol. 32, no. 5, 2018) is available online by subscription only.

Articles include:

  • “Conscience Claims, Metaphysics, and Avoiding an LGBT Eugenic” by Abram Brummett
  • “Regret, Shame, and Denials of Women’s Voluntary Sterilization” by Dianne Lalonde
  • “Empathy, Social Media, and Directed Altruistic Living Organ Donation” by Greg Moorlock and Heather Draper
  • “Educational Pelvic Exams on Anesthetized Women: Why Consent Matters” by Phoebe Friesen
  • “Will Cognitive Enhancement Create Post-Persons? The Use(essness) of Induction in Determining the Likelihood of Moral Status Enhancement” by Emilian Mihailov and Alexandru Dragomir
  • “Framing the Ethical and Legal Issues of Human Artificial Gametes in Research, Therapy, and Assisted Reproduction: A German Perspective” by Barbara Advena-Regnery et al.

 

A New Edition of Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics Is Now Available

July 19, 2018

Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics (vol. 27, no. 3, 2018) is available online by subscription only.

Articles include:

  • “Regulations on Genome Editing of Human Embryos in Japan: Our Moral Moratorium” by Eisuke Nakazawa, Keiichiro Yamamoto, Aru Akabayashi, and Akira Akabayashi
  • “A Life Fulfilled: Should There Be Assisted Suicide for Those Who Are Done with Living?” by Martin Buijsen
  • “Quality of Living and Dying: Pediatric Palliative Care and End-of-Life Decisions in the Netherlands” by Marije Brouwer, Els Maeckelberghe, Willemien De Weerd, and Eduard Verhagen
  • “Macao Report: Informed Consent in a Multilingual and Multicultural Region, a Bioethical Challenge” by Vera Lúcia Raposo
  • “Patient Engagement at the Household Level: A Feasible Way to Improve the Chinese Healthcare Delivery System Toward People-Centred Integrated Care” by Ziyu Liu
  • “The Understanding of Death in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients in China: An Initial Study” by Hai Shan Huang, Tie Ying Zeng, Jing Mao, and Xiao Hong Liu
  • “Access to Healthcare: A Central Question within Brazilian Bioethics” by Volnei Garrafa, Thiago Rocha Da Cunha, amd Camilo Manchola
  • “Damaging the Future: The Health Rights of Children and the Issue of Short-Termism; Issues Facing Australian Bioethicists” by Sally Dalton-Brown
  • “Ethical Reflections on the Equity of the Current Basic Health Insurance System Reform in China: A Case Study in Hunan Province” by Junxiang Liu, Jingzi Xu, Tianyu Zhang, and Yonghui Ma
  • “Determination of Death in Execution by Lethal Injection in China” by Norbert W. Paul et al.
  • “Moral Enhancement in Russia: Lessons from the Past” by Pavel Tischenko
  • “Ethics Education in New Zealand Medical Schools” by John Mcmillan, Phillipa Malpas, Simon Walker, and Monique Jonas
  • “A Closer Look at the Junior Doctor Crisis in the United Kingdom’s National Health Services: Is Emigration Justifiable?” by Wendy Zi Wei Teo

 

A New Edition of The New Bioethics Is Now Available

July 19, 2018

The New Bioethics (vol. 24, no. 2, 2018) is available online by subscription only.

Articles include:

  • “Beyond Infanticide: How Psychological Accounts of Persons Can Justify Harming Infants” by Daniel Rodger, Bruce P. Blackshaw, and Calum Miller
  • “Elective Abandonment: A Male Counterpart to Abortion” by Richard C. Playford
  • “Screening Children for Caries: An Ethical Dilemma in Nigeria” by Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Bridget Gabriella Haire, Abiola A. Adeniyi, and Wasiu Lanre Adeyemo
  • “Barriers to Advance Care Planning in End-Stage Renal Disease: Who is to Blame, and What Can be Done?” by Alan Taylor Kelley, Jeffrey Turner, and Benjamin Doolittle
  • “Framing the Mind–Body Problem in Contemporary Neuroscientific and Sunni Islamic Theological Discourse” by Faisal Qazi, Don Fette, Syed S. Jafri, and Aasim I. Padela
  • “Teleology and Defining Sex” by Nathan K. Gamble and Michal Pruski

 

Are ‘Breakthrough’ Drugs as Safe as Other FDA-Approved Medicines?

July 18, 2018

(CNN) – New research questions the quality of drugs given the “breakthrough therapy” designation by the US Food and Drug Administration. In late 2012, the FDA created this designation to speed the process for reviewing not-yet-approved experimental medicines intended to treat serious or life-threatening conditions. Commonly, the clinical trials supporting breakthrough drugs lack some of the scientifically rigorous features found in the research backing drugs that have not been granted that designation, a new study published in Tuesday in JAMA found.

A New Study Links Teens’ Screentime with Symptoms of ADHD

July 18, 2018

(Quartz) – American teenagers love their screens. Teens between 13 and 18 years old spend over six hours every day on smartphones, computers, tablets, and the like, well over the two-hour limit recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Health experts have been sounding the alarm about the pitfalls of too much screen time—including increased risk of obesity, depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders. Now a study published Tuesday (July 17) in the Journal of the American Medical Association suggests that frequent use of digital media by adolescents may also increase their odds of developing symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD.

Bioengineering Technique Created for Personalized Bone Grafts

July 18, 2018

(UPI) – Combining segments of bone engineered from stem cells, scientists have developed a new technique for personalized bone grafts for patients with disease of injury. The method, which was described Wednesday in the journal Scientific Reports by scientists at the New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute, is called Segmental Additive Tissue Engineering.

Record Three in Five HIV-Carriers Now Have Access to Drugs: UN

July 18, 2018

(Medical Xpress) – Almost three in five people infected with HIV, or 21.7 million globally, took antiretroviral therapy in 2017—a new record for anti-AIDS drug access, the UN’s HIV/AIDS agency said Wednesday. There were 36.9 million people living with the immune system-attacking virus in 2017, of whom 15.2 million were not getting the drugs they need—the lowest number since the epidemic exploded, UNAIDS reported.

A Third of U.S. Adults Say They Have Used Fertility Treatments or Know Someone Who Has

July 18, 2018

(Pew Research Center) – Four decades after the birth of Louise Brown, the first “test-tube baby” conceived via in vitro fertilization (IVF), 33% of American adults report that they or someone they know has used some type of fertility treatment in order to try to have a baby, according to a new Pew Research Center survey. The share of people who say they have undergone a fertility treatment or know someone who has varies markedly by education and income.

Staggering Prices Slow Insurers’ Coverage of CAR-T Cancer Therapy

July 18, 2018

(Kaiser Health News) – Two drugs, Kymriah and Yescarta, were approved last year to treat patients whose blood cancers haven’t responded to at least two other rounds of treatment. Kymriah is approved for people up to age 25 with a form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common cancer in children. Kymriah and Yescarta are both approved for adults with advanced lymphomas. Researchers report that some critically ill patients who received the therapy have remained cancer-free for as long as five years.

Police Killings of Unarmed Victims Tied to Poor Mental Health in Blacks

July 18, 2018

(Medscape) – Black individuals in the United States are three times more likely than whites to be killed by police, but new research suggests it is the killing of unarmed blacks that adversely affects the mental health of this population. The study, which used information from the Mapping Police Violence (MPV) database and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) survey answers from almost 104,000 adult black respondents, compared the mental health effects on adult blacks in the months leading up to and after a police killing.

No More ‘Sledgehammer’: As Gonorrhea Grows Resistant to Antibiotics, Researchers Look to Bespoke Treatments

July 18, 2018

(STAT News) – With antibiotic resistance on the rise, the days when doctors and clinics could rely on one treatment to cure all gonorrhea cases may be waning. In fact, clinicians may find that some of their patients respond best to drugs of the past. But how will they know which patients? To answer that question, a handful of researchers and companies are trying to develop rapid, point-of-care diagnostics that would signal which drugs work for a given patient and permit clinicians to tailor treatment to the bacterial strain. A future, in other words, of bespoke treatment, in which a greater variety of drugs are used to treat a very common sexually transmitted disease — potentially prolonging the utility of a number of antibiotics.

Health Insurers Are Vacuuming Up Details About You. That Could Raise Your Rates

July 18, 2018

(STAT News) – With little public scrutiny, the health insurance industry has joined forces with data brokers to vacuum up personal details about hundreds of millions of Americans, including, odds are, many readers of this story. The companies are tracking your race, education level, TV habits, marital status, net worth. They’re collecting what you post on social media, whether you’re behind on your bills, what you order online. Then they feed this information into complicated computer algorithms that spit out predictions about how much your health care could cost them.

Genetically Modified Babies Given Go Ahead by UK Ethics Body

July 18, 2018

(The Guardian) – The creation of babies whose DNA has been altered to give them what parents perceive to be the best chances in life has received a cautious green light in a landmark report from a leading UK ethics body. The Nuffield Council on Bioethics said that changing the DNA of a human embryo could be “morally permissible” if it was in the future child’s interests and did not add to the kinds of inequalities that already divide society. The report does not call for a change in UK law to permit genetically altered babies, but instead urges research into the safety and effectiveness of the approach, its societal impact, and a widespread debate of its implications.

A New Edition of JAMA Internal Medicine Is Now Available

July 18, 2018

JAMA Internal Medicine (vol. 178, no. 6, 2018) is available online by subscription only.

Articles include:

  • “Creating a “Manageable Cockpit” for Clinicians: A Shared Responsibility” by Christine A. Sinsky and Michael R. Privitera
  • “Concerns About the Approval of Nusinersen Sodium by the US Food and Drug Administration” by Martha S. Gerrity, Vinay Prasad, and Adam J. Obley
  • “The Role of Telehealth in the Medical Response to Disasters” by Nicole Lurie and Brendan G. Carr
  • “Harry Potter, Magic, and Medicine” by Arjun Gupta
  • “A Physician’s Suffering—Facing Depression as a Trainee” by Colleen M. Farrell
  • “Saving a Death When We Cannot Save a Life in the Intensive Care Unit” by Michael E. Wilson
  • “When Physicians Turn Into Patients—Becoming Kafka’s Cockroach” by Shaurya Taran and Allan S. Detsky
  • “Primary Care Practitioners’ Perceptions of Electronic Consult Systems: A Qualitative Analysis” by Michelle S. Lee et al.
  • “Economics of Palliative Care for Hospitalized Adults With Serious Illness: A Meta-analysis” by Peter May et al.

 

A New Edition of JAMA Is Now Available

July 18, 2018

JAMA (vol. 319, no. 22, 2018) is available online by subscription only.

Articles include:

  • “The Ethics of Medicaid’s Work Requirements and Other Personal Responsibility Policies” by Harald Schmidt and Allison K. Hoffman
  • “Management Reasoning: Beyond the Diagnosis” by David A. Cook, Jonathan Sherbino, and Steven J. Durning
  • “The Evolving Pharmaceutical Benefits Market” by Kevin A. Schulman and Barak D. Richman
  • “Antitrust, Market Exclusivity, and Transparency in the Pharmaceutical Industry” by Michael S. Sinha, Gregory D. Curfman, and Michael A. Carrier

 

A New Edition of The New England Journal of Medicine Is Now Available

July 18, 2018

The New England Journal of Medicine (vol. 378, no. 21, 2018) is available online by subscription only.

Articles include:

  • “Keeping Your Cool — Doing Ebola Research during an Emergency” by C.J. Haug
  • “The Calorie-Labeling Saga — Federal Preemption and Delayed Implementation of Public Health Law” by J.P. Block
  • “Doughnuts and Discounts — Changes to Medicare Part D under the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018” by J.M. Donohue and H.A. Huskamp
  • “Subscribing to Your Patients — Reimagining the Future of Electronic Health Records” by K. Choi, Y. Gitelman, and D.A. Asch
  • p53 and Me” by S.N.C. Elmore

 

A New Edition of Developing World Bioethics Is Now Available

July 18, 2018

Developing World Bioethics (vol. 18, no. 2, 2018) is available online by subscription only.

Articles include:

  • “Power Difference and Risk Perception: Mapping Vulnerability within the Decision Process of Pregnant Women towards Clinical Trial Participation in an Urban Middle-Income Setting” by Geerte C. Den hollander et al.
  • “Designing Research Funding Schemes to Promote Global Health Equity: An Exploration of Current Practice in Health Systems Research” by Bridget Pratt and Adnan A. Hyder
  • “Beneficial Coercion in Psychiatric Care: Insights from African Ethico-Cultural System” by Cornelius Olukunle Ewuoso
  • “Application of Ethical Principles to Research using Public Health Data in The Global South: Perspectives from Africa” by Evelyn Anane-Sarpong et al.
  • “Opt-In or Opt-Out to Increase Organ Donation in South Africa? Appraising Proposed Strategies Using an Empirical Ethics Analysis” by Harriet Etheredge, Claire Penn, and Jennifer Watermeyer
  • “A Critique of the Principle of ‘Respect for Autonomy’, Grounded in African thought” by Kevin G. Behrens
  • “Ethics of Community Engagement in Field Trials of Genetically Modified Mosquitoes” by David B. Resnik
  • “Age-Related Inequalities in Health and Healthcare: The Life Stages Approach” by Nancy S. Jecker
  • “H3Africa: An Africa Exemplar? Exploring Its Framework on Protecting Human Research Participants” by Obiajulu Nnamuchi
  • “The Benefit Sharing Vision of H3Africa” by Bege Dauda and Steven Joffe
  • “Ethical, Legal and Social Implications of Forensic Molecular Phenotyping in South Africa” by Nandi Slabbert and Laura Jane Heathfield
  • “Quarantine, Isolation and the Duty of Easy Rescue in Public Health” by Alberto Giubilini, Thomas Douglas, Hannah Maslen, and Julian Savulescu
  • “New Developments in India Concerning the Policy of Passive Euthanasia” by Scaria Kanniyakonil
  • “When a Physician and a Clinical Ethicist Collaborate for Better Patient Care” by Thalia Arawi and Lama Charafeddine

 

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