Bioethics.com

Subscribe to Bioethics.com feed
Your global information source on bioethics news, issues, & events
Updated: 5 hours 24 min ago

African-Americans Are Disproportionately Enrolled in Studies That Don’t Require Informed Consent

October 3, 2018

(STAT News) – African-Americans are enrolled in clinical trials that do not require patients to give individual consent at a disproportionately high level, according to a study published Monday. Scientists are allowed to conduct these experiments without obtaining consent from each individual participant because they are testing emergency medical procedures, and often the patients physically can’t respond. For example, scientists might be comparing two different methods of CPR, or examining the effect of different drug cocktails to treat a heart attack.

Japan Set to Allow Gene Editing in Human Embryos

October 3, 2018

(Nature) – Japan has issued draft guidelines that allow the use of gene-editing tools in human embryos. The proposal was released by an expert panel representing the country’s health and science ministries on 28 September. Although the country regulates the use of human embryos for research, there have been no specific guidelines on using tools such as CRISPR–Cas9 to make precise modifications in their DNA until now.

Fewer Young People Are Dying in the US, But Some Minorities Are Harder Hit

October 3, 2018

(ABC News) – A new study released by researchers affiliated with the National Institutes of Health adds more nuance to our understanding of these deaths, and how the U.S. compares to other nations worldwide. While over the past few years fewer people in the U.S. under the age of 25 are dying, there’s an even higher death rate among Black Americans and Native American/Alaskan Native populations compared to other ethnicities.

‘I Will Not Give Them the Baby’: The Plight of Cambodia’s Detained Surrogates

October 3, 2018

(The Guardian) – The new mother, Malis*, and her son are prisoners in a hospital on the outskirts of Phnom Penh with 31 other women, all surrogates hired by a company to deliver babies to Chinese clients. “I will not give them the baby. I will raise him myself,” Malis says. “When I saw him, I loved him already.” Police rounded up the 33 women in late June during a raid on an illegal surrogacy ring. A Chinese national and four Cambodian women were arrested and charged under Cambodia’s anti-trafficking law.

The DNA Data Storage Machine That’s the Size of a School Bus

October 3, 2018

(MIT Technology Review) – In a world awash with data, DNA is a hugely compact way to store it. The data on every iPhone, PC, and server rack on the planet could fit in a Jacuzzi’s worth of genetic letters, for example. It’s also incredibly durable: DNA can last for thousands of years so long as it’s kept relatively cool and dry. Now, one of the fledgling industry’s startups has unveiled plans for its prototype storage device: a hulking school-bus-size machine that could one day convert movies or data archives into invisible pellets of DNA.

FDA Proposes Stiff Fines for Failing to Report Clinical Trials

October 3, 2018

(Nature) – The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing heavy fines for pharmaceutical companies that fail to report clinical-trial results online. In a 20 September draft guidance statement, the FDA said that failure to register trials or submit results to the government database ClinicalTrials[dot]gov could result in fines of up to US$10,000 per day.

A New Edition of Genetics in Medicine Is Now Available

October 3, 2018

Genetics in Medicine (vol. 20, no. 7, 2018) is available online by subscription only.

Articles include:

  • “Pediatric Clinical Exome/Genome Sequencing and the Engagement Process: Encouraging Active Conversation with the Older Child and Adolescent: Points to Consider—A Statement of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG)” by Lynn W Bush et al.
  • “Is Prenatal Genomic Testing Ready for Prime Time?” by Margaret P Adam

 

A New Edition of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Is Now Available

October 3, 2018

The Journal of Medicine & Philosophy (vol. 43, no. 3, 2018) is available online by subscription only.

Articles include:

  • “A Practice-Oriented Review of Health Concepts” by >Beatrijs Haverkamp, Bernice Bovenkerk, and Marcel F Verweij
  • “A New Approach to Defining Disease” by Mary Jean Walker and Wendy A Rogers
  • “Boorse’s Theory of Disease: (Why) Do Values Matter?” by Brent M Kious
  • “Michel Foucault and the Problematics of Power: Theorizing DTCA and Medicalized Subjectivity” by Black Hawk Hancock
  • “An Epistemic Argument for Research-Practice Integration in Medicin” by  Robyn Bluhm and Kirstin Borgerson

 

A New Edition of Journal of Genetic Counseling Is Now Available

October 3, 2018

Journal of Genetic Counseling (vol. 27, no. 4, 2018) is available online by subscription only.

Articles include:

  • “Genetic Counsellors and Private Practice: Professional Turbulence and Common Values” by Sarah Collis, Clara Gaff, Samantha Wake, and Alison McEwen
  • “Genesurance Counseling: Genetic Counselors’ Roles and Responsibilities in Regards to Genetic Insurance and Financial Topics” by Shelby Brown et al.
  • “Genesurance Counseling: Patient Perspectives” by Chelsea Wagner et al.
  • “Implementing Group Prenatal Counseling for Expanded Noninvasive Screening Options” by Betsy L. Gammon et al.
  • “Investigating Pregnancy Outcomes After Abnormal Cell-Free DNA Test Results” by Jessica Lu, Devereux N. Saller, Luanne M. Fraer, and Beatrice A. Chen
  • “Reproductive Decision Support: Preferences and Needs of Couples at Risk for Hereditary Cancer and Clinical Geneticists” by Kelly Reumkens et al.
  • “Psychosocial Profiles of Parents of Children with Undiagnosed Diseases: Managing Well or Just Managing?” by Allyn McConkie-Rosell et al.

 

A New Edition of AI & Society Is Now Available

October 3, 2018

AI & Society (vol. 33, no. 3, 2018) is available online by subscription only.

Articles include:

  • “Nothing But a Human” by Francesco Garibaldo and Emilio Rebecchi
  • “‘Super-intelligent’ machine: Technological Exuberance or the Road to Subjection” by Peter Brödner
  • “What Is Wrong about Robocops as Consultants? A Technology-Centric Critique of Predictive Policing” by Martin Degeling and Bettina Berendt
  • “Symbiosis or Assimilation: Critical Reflections on the Ontological Self at the Precipice of Total Data” by Peter J. Carew
  • “Digitalisation and the Regulation of Work: Theoretical Issues and Normative Challenges” by Angelo Salento
  • “Digital Innovation and the Fourth Industrial Revolution: Epochal Social Changes?” by Loris Caruso
  • “Digitalisation and Employment in Manufacturing” by Daniela Freddi
  • “From Industry 4.0 to Society 4.0, There and Back” by Tatiana Mazali
  • “Anthropomorphism in Social Robotics: Empirical Results on Human–Robot Interaction in Hybrid Production Workplaces” by Anja Richert, Sarah Müller, Stefan Schröder, and Sabina Jeschke
  • “An Overview of Work Analysis Instruments for Hybrid Production Workplaces” by Sarah L. Müller et al.

 

A New Edition of NanoEthics Is Now Available

October 3, 2018

NanoEthics (vol. 12, no. 2, 2018) is available online by subscription only.

Articles include:

  • “Models of Public Engagement: Nanoscientists’ Understandings of Science–Society Interactions” by Regula Valérie Burri
  • “Assembling Upstream Engagement: the Case of the Portuguese Deliberative Forum on Nanotechnologies” by António Carvalho and João Arriscado Nunes
  • “Nanotechnology Governance: from Risk Regulation to Informal Platforms” by Antoni Roig
  • “Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products: The Challenges with regard to Current Legal Frameworks and Consumer Exposure” by Homero Pastrana, Alba Avila, and Candace S. J. Tsai
  • “The Power of Analogies for Imagining and Governing Emerging Technologies” by Claudia Schwarz-Plaschg
  • “Frame Reflection Lab: A Playful Method for Frame Reflection on Synthetic Biology” by Marjoleine G. van der Meij, Anouk A. L. M. Heltzel, Jacqueline E. W. Broerse, and Frank Kupper

 

Wider Use of Osteoporosis Drug Could Prevent Bone Fractures in More Elderly Women

October 2, 2018

(NPR) – A large study has produced strong evidence that a drug commonly used to treat the bone-thinning disease osteoporosis could safely prevent fractures in elderly women who have bones that aren’t as weak. The study of 2,000 women age 65 and older at earlier stages of bone loss — a condition known as osteopenia — found the drug zoledronate reduced by about one-third the risk they would suffer a break.

Yemen Cholera Outbreak Accelerates to 10,000+ Cases per Week: WHO

October 2, 2018

(Reuters) – Yemen’s cholera outbreak – the worst in the world – is accelerating again, with roughly 10,000 suspected cases now reported per week, the latest data from the World Health Organization (WHO) showed on Tuesday.  That is double the average rate for the first eight months of the year, when 154,527 suspected cases of cholera – which can kill a child within hours if untreated – were recorded across the country, with 196 deaths.

Supreme Court Could Limit Execution of People with Dementia

October 2, 2018

(ABC News) – The Supreme Court appeared willing Tuesday to extend protection from capital punishment to people with dementia who can’t recall their crime or understand the circumstances of their execution. The eight justices heard arguments in the case of Alabama death row inmate Vernon Madison, who killed a police officer in 1985 but has suffered strokes that his lawyers say have left him with severe dementia.

Antidepressant Withdrawal ‘Hits Millions’

October 2, 2018

(BBC) – Millions of people get bad side-effects trying to cut down on or come off antidepressants, a large review says.  The All Party Parliamentary Group for Prescribed Drug Dependence review suggests half of patients have withdrawal symptoms and for half of these the symptoms will be severe. Patients should be properly warned, it says. The guidance says symptoms are usually mild and clear up in a week.

ER Staffers Under Assault. Blame the Opioid Crisis.

October 2, 2018

(Medical Xpress) – Emergency departments are becoming increasingly violent places as doctors bear the brunt of fallout from the opioid epidemic, a new survey shows. Nearly half of American emergency physicians said they have been physically assaulted at work, and three in five report those assaults happened during the past year, according to a new poll commissioned by the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP).  Nearly seven in 10 of survey respondents said ER violence has increased over the past five years, with one-quarter reporting it has increased greatly.

FDA Seizes Documents from Juul in Latest E-Cigarette Crackdown

October 2, 2018

(Reuters) – The U.S. Food and Drug Administration said on Tuesday it seized more than a thousand pages of documents from Juul Labs related to the company’s sales and marketing practices after a surprise inspection, the latest clampdown on e-cigarette companies. The FDA said last month it was considering a ban on flavored e-cigarettes from Juul and others as the agency grapples with an “epidemic” of youth e-cigarette use that threatens to create a new generation of nicotine addicts.

Research: Consider Quality of Life When Evaluating Cancer Drug Studies

October 2, 2018

(UPI) – Researchers have determined the cancer patient’s quality of life needs to be considered when studying the effectiveness of drug trials. Reviewed and quantitatively analyzed were 52 articles reporting on 38 randomized clinical trials involving 13,979 cancer patients across 12 cancer types. According to the findings, published Friday in the Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine, there was no significant association between survival when the disease is not getting worse, or “progression-free survival, and health-related quality of life.

Drugmakers Play the Patent Game to Lock in Princes, Block Competitors

October 2, 2018

(Kaiser Health News) – Yet, the patenting of a small change in how an existing drug is made or taken by patients is part of a tried-and-true pharmaceutical industry strategy of enveloping products with a series of protective patents. Drug companies typically have less than 10 years of exclusive rights once a drug hits the marketplace. They can extend their monopolies by layering in secondary patents, using tactics critics call “evergreening” or “product-hopping.”

Cocktail Parties, Apps and Mobile Vans: The New Ways Fertility Companies Are Trying to Reach Women in Their 20s

October 2, 2018

(Good Morning America) – Questions about fertility that were once a concern for women in their 30s are now being directed at women a decade younger.  As more studies show how fertility gradually declines with age, fertility websites, companies, ads and apps are now targeting women in their 20s.

Pages